in Global Software Architecture Summit We’ve had a lot of discussions about software architecture patterns, and I decided to write an article about it, highlighting the ideas of leading software architects.
First of all, what are software architecture patterns?
Architectural patterns are ways to capture proven good design structures so that they can be reused. Software architects have been looking for ways to capture and reuse architectural knowledge that has proven effective in the past.
More specifically, an architecture pattern is a package of design decisions that occurs repeatedly in practice, has well-defined reusable properties, and describes a class of architectures.
Architecture development can be seen as a process of selecting, adapting, and combining patterns. The software architect must decide how to instantiate the pattern, how to tailor it to the specific context and constraints of the problem. And later we will discuss this in more detail.
Mark Richards wrote a book calledSoftware architecture patternsAccording to him, there are 5 main models of software architecture: microkernel, microservices, layered architecture, event-based and space-based. By the way, if you’d like to meet Mark in person, he’ll be holding a hands-on workshop at Global Software Architecture Summit in Barcelona (October 1-2) or you can visit it more advanced seminar at Apium Academy.
5 Basic Software Architecture Patterns
1. Microkernel pattern
The microkernel architectural pattern is also referred to as the plug-in architectural pattern. It is typically used when software development teams build systems with interchangeable components.
This refers to software systems that must be able to adapt to changing system requirements. It separates the minimal functional core from the advanced functionality and custom parts. Itl also serves as a connector for connecting these extensions and coordinating how they work together.
The microkernel architecture pattern is a natural pattern for implementing product-based applications. And a product-based app is an app that is packaged and available for download in various versions, just like a typical third-party product. However, many companies also develop and release their internal business applications, such as software products, complete with versions, release notes, and plug-ins.
The microkernel architecture pattern allows additional application functionality to be added as plug-ins to the main application, providing extensibility and separation and isolation of functions.
The microkernel architecture pattern consists of two types of architectural components: the base system and plug-ins. The application logic is split between independent plug-ins and the underlying core system, allowing for extensibility, flexibility, and isolation of application functionality and custom processing logic. And the base system of the microkernel architecture pattern traditionally contains only the minimum functionality necessary to make the system work.
Perhaps the best example of a microkernel architecture is the Eclipse IDE. By downloading the Eclipse base product, you get a little more than just an editor. However, once you start adding plugins, it becomes a customizable and useful product.
- Excellent flexibility and expandability
- Some implementations allow plugins to be added while the application is running.
- Good portability
- Ease of Deployment
- Quick response to a constantly changing environment
- Plug-ins can be tested in isolation and can be easily mocked in the base system to demonstrate or prototype a specific feature with little or no modification to the base system.
- High performance as you can customize and optimize apps to include only the features you need.
- Applications that take data from different sources transform that data and write it to different destinations.
- Workflow Applications
- Applications for scheduling tasks and tasks
2. Microservice Pattern
When you write your application as a set of microservices, you are actually writing multiple applications that will work together. Each microservice has its own specific responsibility and teams can develop them independently of other microservices. The only relationship between them is communication. Since microservices interact with each other, you need to make sure that messages sent between them remain backwards compatible.
- You can write, maintain, and deploy each microservice separately.
- Ease of scaling as you can only scale the microservices that need to be scaled.
- Parts of an application are easier to rewrite because they are smaller and less connected to other parts.
- New team members need to become productive quickly
- The application should be easy to understand and change
- Highly maintainable and testable—enables rapid and frequent development and deployment.
- Independent deployment capability – Allows a team to deploy their service without having to coordinate with other teams.
- Sites with small components
- Enterprise data centers with well-defined boundaries
- Rapidly growing new businesses and web applications
- Development teams are dispersed, often around the world
3. Layered architecture pattern
The most common architectural pattern is the layered architecture. Tiered architecture patterns are n-tier patterns in which components are organized into horizontal layers. This is the traditional method of designing most software and should be self-contained. This means that all components are interconnected, but not dependent on each other. Each layer of the layered architecture pattern has a specific role and responsibility in the application. For example, the presentation layer will be responsible for handling all the user interface and browser interaction logic, while the business layer will be responsible for executing the specific business rules associated with the request.
One of the powerful features of the layered architecture pattern is the separation of concerns between components. Components within a particular layer only deal with logic related to that layer.
- High testability since components belong to certain levels of the architecture and other levels can be mocked or stubbed, making this pattern relatively easy to test.
- High ease of development since this pattern is well known and not too difficult to implement. In addition, most companies develop applications by separating skill sets by tiers, this pattern becomes the natural choice for developing most business applications.
- Easily assign individual “roles”
- Easily update and enhance layers individually
- Standard business applications that do more than just CRUD operations.
- New apps to build fast
- Teams with inexperienced developers who are not yet familiar with other architectures
- Applications requiring strict maintainability and testability standards
4. Event based template
This is the most common distributed asynchronous architecture used to develop scalable systems. The architecture consists of single-purpose event handling components that listen for events and process them asynchronously. An event-driven architecture creates a central block that accepts all data and then delegates it to individual modules that process a specific type.
- Easily adapt to complex, often chaotic environments
- Easy to scale
- Easily expandable when new event types appear
- Asynchronous systems with asynchronous data flow
- User Interfaces
5. Space pattern
The spatial architecture pattern is specifically designed to address scalability and concurrency issues. It is also a useful architectural pattern for applications with a variable and unpredictable number of concurrent users. High scalability is achieved by removing the limitation of the central database and using replicated in-memory data grids instead.
The space architecture is designed to prevent functional collapse under high load by separating processing and storage of data across multiple servers.
- Responds quickly to constantly changing environments.
- Although space architectures are not typically partitioned or distributed, they are dynamic, and sophisticated cloud tools make it easy to push applications to servers, simplifying deployment.
- High performance is achieved due to the built-in mechanisms for accessing data in memory and caching mechanisms in this pattern.
- High scalability is due to the fact that there is little or no reliance on a centralized database, which essentially eliminates this limiting bottleneck in the scalability equation.
- Large amounts of data such as clickstreams and user logs.
- Low-value data that can be lost from time to time without serious consequences
- Social media
I hope you found this article helpful, if you think there are other templates that should be listed here, feel free to share them in the comments section below! And if you have any questions, write to us, we will be happy to help, as this is our specialty!